When we talk about youth education according to Islamic Psychology perspective, we must ask in advance what kind of Islamic Psychology should look at teenagers and people in general? Are Islamic Psychology should see the man more as a cultural product that is fully subject to social changes? Or he should have been more human view of nature insaniah aspect with which he created? Are the phases of human development, including adolescent phase, should be fully subject to the will of the cultural community that is always changing from time to time? Or he should pay more attention to the things that is natural in the stages of growth?
It is true to say that humans are cultural beings and can not be separated from its cultural development. However, humans also have the properties of natural (nature) that can not be ignored, for the sake of preservation of the psychological health of human beings themselves. Islamic psychology are concerned to learn the things of this nature to then escort him in the phases of human growth.
The Qur’an reminds, “… (keep up) nature of God who created man by nature is. No changes in the nature of God. (That’s) the right religion, but most people do not know. “Serious changes in human nature would have caused serious problems also in the psychological and social level. This article will attempt to dissect the issues and youth education from this perspective.
Modern teenagers and Root problem
Promoting youth education ideally still refers to the condition of contemporary youth, so that the solutions offered are not divorced from reality. In addition, we are also looking for answers to some basic questions like: Who is actually a group called the teen’s age? What are its characteristics? And what is the situation they face today, both psychologically and socially?
There is no definition and standard age limit for the age group commonly called adolescence. But in general, teenagers are usually regarded as a transitional age group between children and adults, roughly between the ages of 12 and 20 years.Hilgard explains that there are at least three important aspects that mark adolescence: 1) The occurrence of physical changes (growth hormone and sexual organs), 2) The search and stabilization of self-identity, and 3) The preparations for the duties and responsibilities as human beings who independent.
Phase of adolescence is often regarded as a very unstable phase in the stage of human development. G.S. Hall called it a shock und drang ‘future hurricanes, “while James E. Gardner called it a period of turbulence (turbulent period.) This assessment would depart from the psychological and social realities of adolescence.
Actually, the extent to which the turmoil experienced by teenagers today? If the problems teenagers at home and abroad gathered at the most, certainly the data that will surprise those who watched. Meanwhile, qualitatively and quantitatively, the problems of teenagers had apparently been increasing day by day.
These teens are now more familiar with issues of sex, violence, drugs, and psychological problems. Modern adolescent sexual behavior increasingly free and permissive. Research Gatra magazine several years ago showed that 22% of teens consider fair kissing lips, and 1.3% consider coitus fair relationship. This figure is relatively small, but other studies show a higher rate. For example, 10% of the 600 high school students surveyed in Central Java claimed to have had intercourse. In fact, previous studies also showed that the number is quite high.
Some adolescents in Semarang had been caught by the authorities and citizens for committing a sex party and get drunk, while others on the Ujung Pandang died in a car after doing the same thing. Many of them do it all not because of economic pressure, but to seek satisfaction alone. Sexual behavior in rural adolescents was also not too much different from the behavior of their counterparts in urban areas.
Examples of the above statistics and the case certainly is not as big and as serious as that occurred in Europe and the United States (see Annex 1), but there are indications that sexual freedom more incentive to get into the ground water along with the spread of global culture. Electronic mass media and which contains elements of sex and violence, as well as pornographic comics, so easily accessible to teenagers today. Now, children, grade 4 to 6 SD was asking questions that are very mature about sex, like “Is it self-service sex?” And “How to have sex?” Meanwhile, some high school age youth, she was not reluctant to be photographed breast, or even naked body, with a mobile phone, simply because of pride in the beauty of his own body.
Figures of violence and the consumption of cigarettes and illicit drugs was also high among young people of Indonesia. Data about the brawl in Jakarta in the first half of 1999, as reported by Media Indonesia, shows that on average two children died every month because of fighting among students. In the same year, a study of the drug showed that at least 60-80% of junior high school students throughout the Yogya ever tasted narcotics, while the residential areas at least 10 teenagers (ABG) in each RT never tasted drugs. This figure is also quite high in Jakarta and other big cities. Even narcotics in the form of candy once in circulation in East Jakarta with the target consumer elementary school children.
In some foreign countries, as in the United States and Hong Kong, the level of psychological vulnerability of adolescents is very high. News Week magazine has raised serious problems post-shooting teenager in America that caused the deaths of more than ten children at Columbine school. One appointed by the magazine survey says that one in four teens in the United States thinks of suicide. Survey American Academy of Pediatrics has recently even showed that 60% of students stated that they never thought of suicide, and 9% of them had tried it at least once.Meanwhile in Hong Kong, one of three teenage minded to commit suicide.
In Indonesia, the issue is certainly not that serious. However, since mid-2003 to April 2005 there were at least 30 cases of suicide attempts made by teenagers in the country. Not all children who attempt suicide experience death. Some have been rescued and survive. However, almost all of them do attempt suicide for trivial reasons and absurd, like “fight with the brother of instant noodles,” “fight for the remote to watch the AFI on TV,” “cranky have bought a picture book,” or because “disappointed do not buy a TV. “This phenomenon has apparently not been raised in previous decades. This all illustrates the vulnerability is quite serious in teens psychological condition of Indonesia, especially in recent years.
Modern teenagers have become a separate age groups who distinguish themselves from the age group of children and adults. They experience psychological turmoil expressed out in various forms of decadence as has been described previously. They became unruly and often clashed with parents. Teachers and school parties too hard to control them. Teens are hanging out with friends their age and create a culture of peers (peer culture). They feel closer to friends their own age who have similar characteristics with them. They are also less willing to hear from adults who increasingly rarely interact with them and do not always understand the turmoil of their feelings. They are unstable condition often led to peer pressure (peer pressure) that tends to drop them to the various negative things, like cigarettes, drugs, violence and free sex.
The adults around them, including parents and teachers, may be confused how to address teenage children. Want to be addressed as adults, they were not very mature and much needed guidance. Want to be addressed as a child, more is no longer possible given the physical development of those who begin to show the characteristics of adults. As a result, the age group of teenagers became increasingly alienated from the adult world that ideally can guide them toward maturity and personal independence.
How can these phenomena be explained? Is all of that is normal in teenagers? Are the various psychological and social problems of modern teenagers are faced by their age peers in the past? Or is it just a characteristic of modern teens? We will try to unravel these issues one by one, before it initiated the best educational solution for children adolescents.
When entering the age of adolescence (puberty), every child has a very significant change in his physique, especially as related to sexual organs. These changes lead to awkwardness in self teenager because he had to adjust to the changes earlier.This adjustment can not always they passed well, especially when no guidance and support from parents.
Along with physical changes towards maturity, which is psychological changes experienced by teenagers. In themselves they begin to show a sense of identity. If at the time a child they never think about their own identity, then in adolescence such questions as “who I am?” And “what my life purpose?” Become a very important issue. It’s actually a fair question for anyone who enters adulthood, because at this time they already have started independently, including in terms of identity or identity.The problem became serious when these questions can not be answered properly and continue to drag on their minds as positive.
With regard to this identity issue, Jane Kroger said that “Teenagers seem to be a moment … when one is confronted with the issue of self-definition.” Meanwhile, Kathleen White and Joseph Speisman in their book, Young, explained that teenagers tend to, “wrestle with the issue of who itself and where its purpose. “As soon as they serious with this issue so that” perhaps only in adolescence only individuals can be its own moral philosophers. ”
Unfortunately, only a handful of teenagers who might actually pass as a “moral philosopher,” while most others even more confused and do not care about anything around him. Many have failed in finding the answers to these questions are important and fundamental earlier. Failures in self-definition makes adolescents experiencing ‘role confusion’ (role confusion) is currently looking for a role model to be followed.
Model the role of parents as a child before they idealkan now starting to stay away from them, especially if the parent problem. Adolescents begin to look for role models and identities that exist outside the family. However, they often experience confusion because there are so many choices of roles and values that conflict with one another, while they do not obtain the steady guidance how to decide which option is best for themselves. All of that brings teens to the conditions very unstable, vulnerable, and easily influenced by their environment. In turn, not a few teenagers who finally got into serious problems as has been mentioned at the beginning of this paper.
The situation got worse, because the capitalists, especially the entertainment business entrepreneurs, trying to take advantage of the unstable condition of adolescents. Identity search adolescents seen by them as a “demand” (demand) and business opportunities. They then give the “bidding” (supply) in the form of artists and celebrities showing false identity (the pseudo-identity). Teenagers do not just appreciate the movie or song celebrities because they are attractive, but also because of the celebrities featured models of identity that they can imitate and follow.However, imitation they do not resolve problems and turbulence in them, have even more multiplied.
All of these revolve in a cycle. The capitalists create entertainment industry that brings artists and celebrities. The celebrities featuring the fictitious identity appreciated by the children teen as search efforts to the fulfillment of their identity. The teenagers, or their parents, to spend money to consume entertainment and appreciate artists, and money into the pockets of the capitalist. The cycle continues to spin. And as a result, the capitalists have capital accumulation, while adolescents experience accumulated crisis.
So far, the data show that the period of adolescence is identical to the crisis, unstable nature, as well as psychological and social upheaval that is destructive. In other words, kelabilan and fluctuation (turbulence) attached to the phase of adolescence which is the transition between children and adults. Youth education should be able to provide the best solution in reducing conditions were unstable and turbulent, and provide solutions for them to get out of the circle of crises they experienced.Therefore, in order to formulate solutions before, Psychology of Islam need to reevaluate the position of youth as an age group follows its properties, associated with the properties of human and natural that there should be on human beings in every phase of her age.
Critical study of the phase of adolescence showed that this age group following characteristics, as understood by modern society, is not natural. That is, the natural pattern of human growth is actually not open the opportunity for the formation of adolescent age group as we understand it now. Presence phase of adolescence in modern times is actually derived from maturation delay imposed by society.
Tanner Bekenaan hereby ask the question, “What is the tension and anxiety during puberty baligh was caused by natural or imposed by society?” He then answered his own question, “The answer seems to be that tension and anxiety had been imposed by society in countries that have advanced , because the public timetable does not seem in sync with the timeline of man’s natural growth. “So, it seems clear here that the turmoil of adolescence occur because people in developed countries that already have changed the time schedule of human growth accordance with their interests, so contrary to natural schedule teen owned earlier. In other words, the nature of instability and turmoil of adolescence is a cultural product, and not based on natural human traits.
Naturally, every child should have to grow up when baligh, or shortly after baligh, but modern society has a different schedule of when should a child become an adult.Communities then forced postponement of maturity schedule of children in such a way – because they must pass through a long period of formal education and also because several other factors – while at the same time its natural schedule was still running as usual. So instead of adjusting to the schedule of nature, modern society chooses to impose a new schedule that they think is good. This is what later became the trigger turmoil in modern teens, as will be further explained later.
Tanner continued his explanation, “In primitive societies, the years of childhood provide all the necessary study time for people to adjust to the culture. As a result, sexual maturity and social maturity is achieved about the same. Longest interval of which only two or three years. “History proves that in times past, teenagers as we now understand absolutely nothing.
Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono, in his book Psychology of Youth, also stated the same opinion. The concept of adolescents are not known in times past. He said,
“Although the concept of the child has been known since the 13th century, but a new concept of youth itself is widely known and deeply at the beginning of the 20th century alone and develop in accordance with culture conditions such as due to a prolonged formal education, because of city life large, the formation of ‘families’ batih as a substitute for large families …. ”
Thus, cultural development has delayed the maturation of children and create a new reality that age group, namely teenagers, which is the transition between the age groups of children and adults. The observation of this new reality and then gave birth to the concept of teenagers as understood today’s society. However, the new reality created by modern culture is apparently also contributes to the emergence of various problems and prolonged crisis in teens. As Ahmad Faqih, the progress of modern science have contributed to the emergence of discrepancies and dehumanization.
In the past, and in primitive societies that have not been in touch with modern culture, children acquire their maturity status was not long after the occurrence of puberty.These children, in different ways, have been prepared psychologically and socially to understand and accept their maturity at the beginning or middle of their teens. Even primitive societies in general have a separate ceremony to ‘inaugurate’ their children as adults. Thus, the children learn and experience the moment of their social maturity in a firm, as strongly as the moment they feel the biological maturity at puberty. Most important of all, teenagers in primitive societies do not experience the turmoil and crisis like that experienced by modern teens.
There is some evidence of primitive society which can be presented here.Anthropological research by Margaret Mead in Samoa and Papua islands show that “the boys into adult men and young girls into adult women without experiencing anxiety and emotional distress in America is considered inevitable.” The Indians in the Americas as well as interest- primitive tribe in South Africa also has a special ceremony to inaugurate their children become adults. Even modern Jews still maintain a Bar Mitzvah ceremony in synagogues to officially lift the boys those aged 13 years (12 years for girls) become adults.
No emotional upheaval that stand out above the primitive society is caused by the provision of social status is obvious at an early age – in the early days of puberty they are – in addition to the psychological preparation of children in times previous. Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono also asserts in his book that teens who have a clear social status in early childhood usually do not experience the turmoil that stand out. “Experience has shown that adolescents who had received a clear social status in early childhood, did not show any emotions that are too prominent as the other colleagues who have to undergo the transition in tempo long enough,” he wrote.
Based on all the exposure and the facts above, it can be concluded that kelabilan and excessive turbulence of adolescence is the reality of modern society is the impact of cultural change. Turmoil and the crisis is happening because society and culture today have pushed back the scheduled maturity of the child outside of its natural schedule. At the time of puberty (approximately age 12 years), children experience biological maturity is marked by a wet dream (wet dreaming) and the development of sexual organs. Given this biological maturity, adolescents have the same biological capabilities with other adults, he can get married and have kids.
Along with the entry of a person to biological maturity phase, through puberty, the desire and need to mature psychologically and socially also emerged. Separated and the second postponement of this latter type of manhood, namely psychological and social maturity, of biological maturity has led to confusion, uncertainty, and in turn the turmoil and crisis in self-teens. . The volatility is the result from the separation and the delay was contrary to the natural processes that exist in a person.Therefore, the main task of the Islamic Psychology is looking for a way for teens growth can take place in a healthy return on its natural process, without having to leave the phase of modern culture and back to the primitive culture. In other words, Psychology of Islam needs to attract and revitalize the old values are more natural, positive, and Islam to provide the best solutions for the growth of teenagers in the modern world.
Aspects of Youth Education
Adolescent issues that arise due to tension between what is natural (nature) in human beings with cultural coercion. He also happens because the existing education system is too stressed to the interests of the state and economic growth, rather than health interests of human growth itself.
Be aware that the duty of Islam is that human psychology is always straight with fithrahnya. In relation to education, Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas emphasize that the purpose of education from the lowest level to highest level should not be intended to produce perfect citizens (complete citizen), but to bring people plenary. Muslim education experts also have a similar opinion. Dr. Ali Asraf states that education should be directed to develop a completely individual. While the Imam al-Ghazali argues that the purpose of education is the realization of human perfection that could bring him closer to God and can lead to happiness in this world and the Hereafter.
Efforts to establish a full and complete human being (al-man al-kamil) is not likely to happen as long as there is still serious gaps in aspects of adolescent maturity. The gap is incompatible with human natural growth patterns and therefore lead to soul in self-adolescent morbidity. Mental morbidity in turn lead to social morbidity in adolescent community and environment. Prof. El-Quussy states that “education is not heading toward creating mental health is considered as a futile act, which is useless.”
Therefore, one important task of Islamic Psychology in education today is to eliminate disparities in the juvenile aspect of adolescent maturity. Schedule of biological maturity may not pushed back by the due date, because it occurs naturally. Therefore, psychological and social maturity schedule was the one who needs to re-forward the time for close to biological maturity schedule, as has been experienced by teenagers in primitive societies and in society in the past. Dimajukannya timetable psychological and social maturity is more natural and better ensure mental health in adolescent growth phase.
Adolescent child’s social maturity is usually achieved by the social acceptance of parents and their environment to adolescents as persons of full age and level with the other adults. In addition, social maturity also manifested by the interaction between children and adults around them are equal and adults. In other words, teenagers should be treated as adults and are involved in the community and positive activities of adults. Had the parents to address and involve their children in adulthood, even before the boys stepped on the baligh / puberty, then the children will have a healthy adult character when she entered adolescence. In such situations, the less likely the child will suffer serious and prolonged turmoil in the phase of adolescence. It so happens that he has gained social status (status of maturity) is clear from an early age.
The psychological maturity should ideally be formed since pre-puberty through education that can foster the character and behavior in young adults. Therefore, the need to study any aspects that differentiate between children and adults. Our own view basic aspects that differentiate the two age groups include four issues, namely self-identity, purpose in life (and vision), considerations in choosing, as well as responsibility. Youth education needs to pay attention to this aspect of growing healthy and start the fourth since the age of children not yet teenagers. Here are four of these aspects will be discussed one by one.
Children pre-puberty usually not thinking about the identity or his true identity, because they do not have the independence, including the issue of identity. The children identify themselves with their parents. It may be assumed that the identity of the children pre-puberty together with the identity of his parents. However, when children enter the phase of biological maturity (baligh / puberty), he began to feel the demands for independence, including the issue of identity. What has not previously crossed my mind, now began to become serious. Questions like “who am I really?” And “what my life purpose?” Start demanding answers independently.
At this point, ideally teenager was ready to become independent and mature. An adult who has the character does not get confused with her identity. He knows very well who he was and what the objectives of his life. The identity of the adults themselves had become a solid line with the formation of values (values) and principles that support.
In relation to identity, one usually would associate himself with one of the following: religion or ideology, tribe or nation, and profession. A students for example, he will tend to declare “I am a Muslim” when asked about who he is. The oang who live in tribal communities that will be more condensed associate his identity with the tribe.Someone could have more than one identity at the same time – such as Muslims, as the Javanese, and as a businessman as well – but usually there is an identity which is more dominant and become the main identity.
An identity needs to dikokohkan by values (values) and principles that support it, because if not, then the identity will only be artificial and inconsistent. For example, such a state that identity is primarily Muslim, but he did not understand the values and principles of Islam and many do things contrary to his religion. Therefore, build self-identity in children should be done by building the values and principles that underpin the establishment of that identity.
Children need to build its identity since childhood, both at home and at school, so that when they entered the age of baligh, they already have a strong identity and no longer easily be swayed in life. Islamic Psychology certainly recommend the religion of Islam as the main identity for each person. And therefore, the values and principles of Islam need to be formulated and gradually inculcated in children. If the process penenaman and inheritance of this value goes well, then the child will no longer have an identity crisis when entering their teens.
2. Purpose and Vision in Life
Of purpose and vision in life is also very helpful self-identity formation and maturity in a person. Children pre-puberty usually do not think about the purpose and vision of life. They still depend on the objectives and plans of their parents. People who have an adult character knows well what the goals and ideals, though not all persons aged adults certainly have these characteristics. The purpose and vision is also closely linked to self identity. If someone makes religion as an identity, then the ideals of his life would also refer to religious values. If he makes the profession and work as an identity, then the ideals of life are also of course refers to the profession and its work.
In the context of adult education teens, ideally a person has been oriented to think about the goals and ideals since he was a child and has not yet entered puberty.When life’s purpose and vision of the high implant in them a continual basis, so when the child has begun to be independent, ie during baligh, he will have a clear direction of life. He no longer felt confused by what is actually a desire, as is frequently experienced by modern teens.
The parents and teachers in schools should not underestimate the ideals of a child who is very tall and looks impossible. They just have to look at him and pushed him positively, while directing the child on the steps that must be met to achieve the ideals of earlier – certainly within the capacity to think and act in them. Thus, since the beginning of children and adolescents will be preoccupied with the goals and ideals, so no longer have much opportunity to waste their time without any clear purpose.
3. Considerations in Selecting
The Qur’an teaches that there are two basic considerations in choosing, which is based on the love-hate or based on good-bad. Al-Qur’an, as well as our common sense, teaches that consideration of good-bad better than considerations based on the love-hate. “It may be that you hate something when it might be good for you and you like something bad but it is for you. And Allah knows and ye know not. “(Al-Baqarah : 216).
Children tend to choose something based on considerations like-not like. When he likes something, then he will want and try to get it. If he does not like it, then he will try to reject it even something that might do him good. People who have an adult character to choose on the basis of different considerations. They weigh something on the pros and cons. Although he tends to be on something, he will mengindarinya if it is bad for him. Of course this is an ideal illustration. In reality, many people also found that adults aged but do bad things just because they like these things.
A good education should be able to direct the child step by step to change the basic consideration of the like-not like a good-bad. In this case, communication with the child plays a very vital. The children need to explain the merits of the reasons why something should not be done or why something should be done. Thus they understand the reasons behind the good-bad or not be an option.
To them also need to explain the consequences of those choices available. Let your child see the options they have, good and bad, here’s the risk behind it. Encourage the child to establish his own choice, instead of imposing the choices we make, so he will be more responsible with the choices he took it. All this process will help the maturity to think the child and make it more accountable. Every time he wanted to make a choice, he has been trained to the habits of thinking oriented consideration of good-bad. Thus, when he stepped on the teenage years, he was able to take positive decisions independently. He will not easily be swayed by other people invitations that are not favorable for long-term interests and also will not determine the origin choice and irresponsible.
Each person through several phases of responsibility in his life journey. While still a child and yet have the ability to take responsibility, then the person his parents who assume responsibility for him, until he was able to bear it alone. This phase can be called pre-phase responsibilities. When children get older, their ability to assume increased responsibility. At that time, a portion of responsibility, namely the responsibility who have started to be assuming, could be delegated by parents to their children. This phase can be called a phase of partial responsibility.
When a person is already fully independent life, in the sense that he was married and livelihood, then he entered the phase of full responsibility. The responsibility has been delegated to him in full. Finally, one can expand his responsibilities in accordance with his capacity. He could be a leader in his extended family environment, in a community, even at the national or international. This phase can be referred to as the phase of the expansion of responsibilities.
Each person would not jump from one phase of responsibility to the next phase of a sudden. Therefore, before entering a higher phase, he needs to be prepared with exercises specific responsibilities. Children need to be grown sensitivity responsibility (sense of responsibility), rather than continuously burdened with the responsibility of forms (forms of responsibility). Had the children’s self-awakened sense of responsibility and pride in taking responsibility, then it will be easier to accept various forms of responsibility delegated to him.
Based on the descriptions above, the child should be given exercises that responsibility according to their capacities, and is directed to feel happy with the fulfillment of those responsibilities. Children who grow up without this kind of habituation responsibility will tend to feel heavy and rebellious at the time he must accept what it is responsible. He has the capacity to carry out certain responsibilities, but instead acted immature with hate and reject that responsibility upon himself. All this happened because he was never trained and prepared to assume greater responsibility. Therefore, youth education in the context of Islamic Psychology needs to develop maturity of children by growing sense of responsibility (sense of responsibility) and to provide exercises responsibility early on.
So that children are not burdened with the acceleration process of psychological and social maturity, the forms of responsibility that has been given to excess in most modern child also needs to be reduced. Children need to be given the opportunity to play in a healthy enough until he was seven years old. Thus, the process of their growth will take place with a good and healthy, so that the occurrence of excessive volatility in adolescence can be avoided.
As already explained, the various problems and the turmoil of adolescence that occurs in this day emerged because of the serious gap between biological maturity and adulthood psychological and social impact on children. These gaps do not occur in primitive societies as well as in the past society. He happened to modern teens as people have pushed back the schedule of psychological and social maturity of the child’s biological maturity schedule. All this is contrary to the natural process of growth of each human.
The task of education and the Psychology of Islam is to ensure that the growth of human functioning in accordance with nature and to ensure the formation of a full and complete human being (al-man al-kamil). It is not possible unless the gap that has been mentioned earlier can be eliminated. Therefore, the process of psychological and social maturity of children need to be established early on, so that when the child entered the stage of biological maturity, he was ready to have two other aspects of manhood.
Child’s social maturity can be achieved with the social acceptability of the environment on children as adults are equivalent to other adults. If the child is addressed and treated as an adult, then he will more quickly become an adult. As for the psychological maturity of children can be achieved through education and training process that takes into account four aspects, namely self-identity, purpose of life, considerations in choosing, as well as responsibility.
Establishment of psychological and social maturity necessary to be a serious concern in the education process of children into the phase of the teenage years. Both parents and teachers in schools need to consider the imbalance which has occurred in adolescents and realize the solution by considering the things that have been described above. Thus, when entering a period of baligh, the child is ready to enter the adult phase early in its growth stage, and instead of being a teenager a turbulent (turbulence) as we witness today.
Finally, all the above can be implemented properly without the need to create a culture receded back to back to primitive times. By doing so the health of human growth and social progress can go hand in hand, without needing to sacrifice one of the other party.
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